Peculiar To Males

by Ifeyinwa Ugo-Amadi
Infection is the invasion and multiplication of an organism by any disease causing agent, it involves the response of the organism to this agent and the toxins they produce. Infection could be caused by viruses, microorganisms, nematodes or fungi. These infections affect different sites in the organism and could result in symptoms dependent on the site affected and the cause.

Infection implicated in the prostate gland is known as prostatitis. Prostatitis is defined as the microscopic inflammation of the tissue of the prostate gland. It is presented in four syndromes.

1.      Acute bacterial prostatitis: This is the least common form of prostatitis caused by a sudden bacterial infection. It is not restricted to any age group. Symptoms include inability to empty bladder, pain in lower back, fever and chills.

2.      Chronic bacterial prostatitis: It is characterised by an associated symptom complex. The hallmark is the occurrence of relapsing urinary tract infection usually involving the same pathogen.

3.      Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS): This is subdivided into inflammatory CPPS and non-inflammatory CPPS. Characterised primarily by urological pain complaints in the absence of urinary tract infection, it stem from persistent infection, inflammation to muscle spasms. Symptoms include difficulty in urinating, pain in the pelvic area and genitals. It can also occur without symptoms.

4.      Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: No genitourinary pain complaints is involved but elevated white blood cell counts is observed in the ejaculate. It may be diagnosed while carrying out urinary or reproductive test. It does not require any treatment.

Diagnosis of prostatitis is based on personal/family medical history, physical examination (may include observing urethral discharge, digital rectal examination etc) and medical tests (may include urinalysis, cytoscopy, semen analysis, blood test etc). Complications include bacterial infection in bloodstream, sexual dysfunction, inflammation of surrounding reproduction organs and abscess in prostate.   

The treatment of prostatitis is based on the underlying pathologies of the medical situation. Alternative treatments may include sitz bath (A warm, shallow bath that cleanses the space between the rectum and the vulva or scrotum, may contain some medication or salt), kegel and relaxation exercises, phytotherapy with plant extracts such as quercetin, bee pollen and saw palmetto.



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